The ecological factors acting inside the greenhouse exert a variable influence on the bio-ecology of crops and on the animals to them associated. Usually, the development and the productivity of cultivated plants are positively stimulated, while that of the animal populations (pests and natural enemies) undergo a variable influence depending on the taxa and their evolutionary adaptations. So, different pests find a suitable environment inside the greenhouse and their populations develop at high levels enough to create serious problems for the control, while that of their natural enemies, indigenous and/or released, may adopt different models, to the point that sometimes the development of populations of important beneficials results inconsistent. The phenomenon depends by various ecological factors (temperatures, R.H., brief cultural cycle, homogeneity of crops, high density of plants, agronomic practices, choice of varieties, high use of fertilizers, high availability of food for pests, etc.) and defines an agro-ecosystem simple and ecologically instable, which from a practical point of view encourages the application of radical methods of control, such as the generalized use of pesticides. Unfortunately, the risk of toxic residues on foodstuffs due to shorter growing seasons and to the scalability of the production of greenhouse crops, the resistance of pests to various active ingredients, and the high cost of chemical control does not encourage the use of pesticides (alarming on certain crops and world areas) and highlight serious hygienic, ecological and economic contraindications. This scenario suggests the application of alternative methods of control, e.g. integrated pest management, biological control, organic farming. Among these strategies, the organic farming offers greater assurance of eco-toxicological and economic order. The technical lines governing the application of the pest control in the organic farming and the means available in the practical context have been extensively discussed in chapters 1 (Daniel et al., 2016), and 2 (Benuzzi and Ladurner, 2016), respectively. In this chapter we discuss the technical choices of pest control in a organic farming program in greenhouse. The topic is introduced by a brief discussion on the general features of the greenhouses (metal-glass, wood-plastic, etc.), on its relationship with the microclimate, in order to help the reader to better evaluate the factors that influence the development of the pests and their natural enemies in this particular environment, with the prior aim to hinder the development of pests and to agevolate - when and where possible - that of beneficials.
|Titolo:||Pest Management in Organic Vegetable Greenhouses|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio)|