In Mediterranean countries the olive oil industry produces, yearly, a huge quantity of pollutant wastes in a short time that are phytotoxic for their high content of phenols and wax that affect soil and groundwater quality. With the use of biological processes, we can transform these wastes into fertilizers for a sustainable agriculture. We used three different methods anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, and crude agricultural waste management system to produce organic fertilizers. The obtained compounds were chemically analysed to verify if their characteristics fell into the marketability limits permitted by the current Italian regulation. Their effects on soil were subsequently assessed. Results evidenced that all the by-products obtained were suitable as fertilizers. They were able to increase soil organic matter, microbial biomass, and nutrients with beneficial effects on soil fertility, but at different extent. The best effects were in the order: compost, olive pomace-sulphur-bentonite pelletized and digestate. Considering that the three different methodologies dispose different amounts of olive pomace (90% in aerobic digestion, 12% in anaerobic digestion and 5% in sulphur bentonite pelletized) in different time (4 months for compost, 1 month for anaerobic digestion and 1 day for sulphur-bentonite pelletized) and processing set-up, each method can be differently competitive for environment and/or agriculture. Aerobic digestion has economic advantage over other alternatives and has the greatest fertilizer effect even if the production time is longer than the other two. Digestate, coming from anaerobic digestion, reduces the environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions it is rich in nutrients and can be obtained in a shorter time than compost. Olive pomace-sulphur-bentonite pelletized represents a crude waste management systems that reduce greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere producing fertilizers able to generate, mainly in alkaline soils, a soluble zone of nutrients while minimizing leaching losses to the environment.
|Titolo:||Three different methods for turning olive pomace in resource: Benefits of the end products for agricultural purpose|
MUSCOLO, Adele Maria [Writing – Review & Editing] (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|