An explainable Artificial Intelligence (xAI) approach is proposed to longitudinally monitor subjects affected by Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by using high-density electroencephalography (HD-EEG). To this end, a group of MCI patients was enrolled at IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo of Messina (Italy) within a follow-up protocol that included two evaluations steps: T0 (first evaluation) and T1 (three months later). At T1, four MCI patients resulted converted to Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and were included in the analysis as the goal of this work was to use xAI to detect individual changes in EEGs possibly related to the degeneration from MCI to AD. The proposed methodology consists in mapping segments of HD-EEG into channel-frequency maps by means of the power spectral density. Such maps are used as input to a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), trained to label the maps as “T0” (MCI state) or “T1” (AD state). Experimental results reported high intra-subject classification performance (accuracy rate up to 98.97% (95% confidence interval: 98.68–99.26)). Subsequently, the explainability of the proposed CNN is explored via a Grad-CAM approach. The procedure allowed to detect which EEG-channels (i.e., head region) and range of frequencies (i.e., sub-bands) resulted more active in the progression to AD. The xAI analysis showed that the main information is included in the delta sub-band and that, limited to the analyzed dataset, the highest relevant areas are: the left-temporal and central-frontal lobe for Sb01, the parietal lobe for Sb02, the left-frontal lobe for Sb03 and the left-frontotemporal region for Sb04.

An explainable Artificial Intelligence approach to study MCI to AD conversion via HD-EEG processing

Morabito F. C.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Ieracitano C.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Mammone N.
Membro del Collaboration Group
2021

Abstract

An explainable Artificial Intelligence (xAI) approach is proposed to longitudinally monitor subjects affected by Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by using high-density electroencephalography (HD-EEG). To this end, a group of MCI patients was enrolled at IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo of Messina (Italy) within a follow-up protocol that included two evaluations steps: T0 (first evaluation) and T1 (three months later). At T1, four MCI patients resulted converted to Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and were included in the analysis as the goal of this work was to use xAI to detect individual changes in EEGs possibly related to the degeneration from MCI to AD. The proposed methodology consists in mapping segments of HD-EEG into channel-frequency maps by means of the power spectral density. Such maps are used as input to a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), trained to label the maps as “T0” (MCI state) or “T1” (AD state). Experimental results reported high intra-subject classification performance (accuracy rate up to 98.97% (95% confidence interval: 98.68–99.26)). Subsequently, the explainability of the proposed CNN is explored via a Grad-CAM approach. The procedure allowed to detect which EEG-channels (i.e., head region) and range of frequencies (i.e., sub-bands) resulted more active in the progression to AD. The xAI analysis showed that the main information is included in the delta sub-band and that, limited to the analyzed dataset, the highest relevant areas are: the left-temporal and central-frontal lobe for Sb01, the parietal lobe for Sb02, the left-frontal lobe for Sb03 and the left-frontotemporal region for Sb04.
Alzheimer’s Disease
Convolutional Neural Network
explainable Artificial Intelligence
High-Density Electroencephalography
Mild Cognitive Impairment
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12318/129429
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact