Several Triticum species spread in cultivation in Sicily and neighboring regions over the centuries, which led to the establishment of a large genetic diversity. Many ancient varieties were widely cultivated until the beginning of the last century before being replaced by modern varieties. Recently, they have been reintroduced in cultivation in Sicily. Here, the genetic diversity of 115 and 11 accessions from Sicily and Calabria, respectively, belonging to Triticum species was evaluated using a high-density SNP array. Einkorn, emmer, and spelta wheat genotypes were used as outgroups for species and subspecies; five modern varieties of durum and bread wheat were used as references. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed four distinct groups among Triticum species and T. turgidum subspecies. The population structure analysis distinguished five gene pools, among which three appeared private to the T. aestivum, T. turgidum subsp. Turgidum, and 'Timilia' group. The principal component analysis (PCA) displayed a bio-morphological trait relationship of a subset (110) of ancient wheat varieties and their wide variability within the T. turgidum subsp. durum subgroups. A discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and phylogenetic analyses applied to the four durum wheat subgroups revealed that the improved varieties harbored a different gene pool compared to the most ancient varieties. The 'Russello' and 'Russello Ibleo' groups were distinguished; both displayed higher genetic variability compared to the 'Timilia' group accessions. This research represents a comprehensive approach to fingerprinting the old wheat Sicilian germplasm, which is useful in avoiding commercial fraud and sustaining the cultivation of landraces and ancient varieties.

Elucidating the Genetic Relationships on the Original Old Sicilian Triticum Spp. Collection by SNP Genotyping

Preiti, Giovanni;Sunseri, Francesco;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Several Triticum species spread in cultivation in Sicily and neighboring regions over the centuries, which led to the establishment of a large genetic diversity. Many ancient varieties were widely cultivated until the beginning of the last century before being replaced by modern varieties. Recently, they have been reintroduced in cultivation in Sicily. Here, the genetic diversity of 115 and 11 accessions from Sicily and Calabria, respectively, belonging to Triticum species was evaluated using a high-density SNP array. Einkorn, emmer, and spelta wheat genotypes were used as outgroups for species and subspecies; five modern varieties of durum and bread wheat were used as references. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) showed four distinct groups among Triticum species and T. turgidum subspecies. The population structure analysis distinguished five gene pools, among which three appeared private to the T. aestivum, T. turgidum subsp. Turgidum, and 'Timilia' group. The principal component analysis (PCA) displayed a bio-morphological trait relationship of a subset (110) of ancient wheat varieties and their wide variability within the T. turgidum subsp. durum subgroups. A discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and phylogenetic analyses applied to the four durum wheat subgroups revealed that the improved varieties harbored a different gene pool compared to the most ancient varieties. The 'Russello' and 'Russello Ibleo' groups were distinguished; both displayed higher genetic variability compared to the 'Timilia' group accessions. This research represents a comprehensive approach to fingerprinting the old wheat Sicilian germplasm, which is useful in avoiding commercial fraud and sustaining the cultivation of landraces and ancient varieties.
Triticum
bio-morphological traits
biodiversity
single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
wheat landraces
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12318/131486
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