Since 2012, the kiwifruit vine decline syndrome (KVDS) has progressively compromised Italian kiwifruit orchards. Different abiotic and biotic factors have been associated with the establishment and development of KVDS. During monitoring of orchards affected by KVDS in north-western Italy during 2016-2019, 71 Phytopythium spp. were isolated. Based on maximum likelihood concatenated phylogeny on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA, large subunit rDNA, and cytochrome oxidase I, isolates were identified as P. vexans (52), P. litorale (10), P. chamaehyphon (7) and P. helicoides (2). Phytopythium litorale and P. helicoides are reported for the first time as agents of KVDS in Italy. To demonstrate pathogenicity and fulfil Koch's postulates, representative isolates of P. vexans, P. litorale, P. chamaehyphon and P. helicoides were inoculated in potted plants. In these trials, waterlogging was applied to stress plant with a temporary anoxia and to favour the production of infective zoospores by the oomycetes. In experiments in vitro, the four species showed the highest growth at 25-30 degrees C, depending on the media used. P. helicoides was able to grow also at 40 degrees C. The four species were able to grow in vitro at a pH ranging from 5.0 to 8.0, showing that pH had less effect on growth than temperature. The present study suggests a strong role of different species of Phytopythium in the establishment and development of KVDS. Phytopythium spp. could be favoured by the average increase in soil temperatures during summer, associated with global warming.

Characterization of Phytopythium Species Involved in the Establishment and Development of Kiwifruit Vine Decline Syndrome

Schena, Leonardo;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Since 2012, the kiwifruit vine decline syndrome (KVDS) has progressively compromised Italian kiwifruit orchards. Different abiotic and biotic factors have been associated with the establishment and development of KVDS. During monitoring of orchards affected by KVDS in north-western Italy during 2016-2019, 71 Phytopythium spp. were isolated. Based on maximum likelihood concatenated phylogeny on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA, large subunit rDNA, and cytochrome oxidase I, isolates were identified as P. vexans (52), P. litorale (10), P. chamaehyphon (7) and P. helicoides (2). Phytopythium litorale and P. helicoides are reported for the first time as agents of KVDS in Italy. To demonstrate pathogenicity and fulfil Koch's postulates, representative isolates of P. vexans, P. litorale, P. chamaehyphon and P. helicoides were inoculated in potted plants. In these trials, waterlogging was applied to stress plant with a temporary anoxia and to favour the production of infective zoospores by the oomycetes. In experiments in vitro, the four species showed the highest growth at 25-30 degrees C, depending on the media used. P. helicoides was able to grow also at 40 degrees C. The four species were able to grow in vitro at a pH ranging from 5.0 to 8.0, showing that pH had less effect on growth than temperature. The present study suggests a strong role of different species of Phytopythium in the establishment and development of KVDS. Phytopythium spp. could be favoured by the average increase in soil temperatures during summer, associated with global warming.
2023
Italy
cardinal temperature
kiwifruit
morphology
multi-locus sequence typing
oomycete
pH
pathogenicity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12318/133287
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