The wax ester composition of pressed olive oil and its variation during olive ripening were investigated by column chromatography/GC-on column technique. Six compounds were identified: C36, C38, C40, C42, C44 and C46 wax esters, which were grouped as total detected wax esters (TDWEs). The European Union (EU) includes C40, C42, C44 and C46 waxes (TEWEs) as a distinctive characteristic between different categories, with a maximum total content ≤250 mg/kg for an extra virgin olive oil. The International Olive Council (IOC) includes C42, C44 and C46 waxes (TIOCWEs) as a purity parameter, with a maximum total content ≤150 mg/kg for an extra virgin olive oil. The analytical technique proposed by EU and IOC do not separate the wax esters from fatty acids esters with diterpenic alcohols (phytol and geranylgeraniol) that interfere with detected peaks. Although the examined cultivars were grown in the same geographical area and the same agricultural practices were applied to the trees, ANOVA analysis found significant differences among the oils extracted with the same machinery. The oil produced from the Itrana cultivar showed the lowest content in TEWEs (25.00-39.00 mg/kg) and in TIOCWEs (5.67-9.00 mg/kg). Wax content in Leccino and Pendolino cultivars showed a significant tendency to decrease during olive maturation, and a tendency to increase in all other cultivars from the first to the last harvest date when olive pigmentation changed from green to black.

Wax Ester Variation in Olive Oils Produced in Calabria (Southern Italy) During Olive Ripening

GIUFFRE' A. M.
2014

Abstract

The wax ester composition of pressed olive oil and its variation during olive ripening were investigated by column chromatography/GC-on column technique. Six compounds were identified: C36, C38, C40, C42, C44 and C46 wax esters, which were grouped as total detected wax esters (TDWEs). The European Union (EU) includes C40, C42, C44 and C46 waxes (TEWEs) as a distinctive characteristic between different categories, with a maximum total content ≤250 mg/kg for an extra virgin olive oil. The International Olive Council (IOC) includes C42, C44 and C46 waxes (TIOCWEs) as a purity parameter, with a maximum total content ≤150 mg/kg for an extra virgin olive oil. The analytical technique proposed by EU and IOC do not separate the wax esters from fatty acids esters with diterpenic alcohols (phytol and geranylgeraniol) that interfere with detected peaks. Although the examined cultivars were grown in the same geographical area and the same agricultural practices were applied to the trees, ANOVA analysis found significant differences among the oils extracted with the same machinery. The oil produced from the Itrana cultivar showed the lowest content in TEWEs (25.00-39.00 mg/kg) and in TIOCWEs (5.67-9.00 mg/kg). Wax content in Leccino and Pendolino cultivars showed a significant tendency to decrease during olive maturation, and a tendency to increase in all other cultivars from the first to the last harvest date when olive pigmentation changed from green to black.
ANOVA; Legal limits; Minor components; Olea Europaea L.; Olive oil purity; Olive pigmentation; Olive ripening; Quality criteria; Waxes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12318/1461
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