Liquid phase functionalisation of carbon nanotubes is carried out via a H2SO4 +HNO3 mixture, and the effect of the sulphuric to nitric acid volume ratio (1:3–3:1) is systematically investigated by means of complementary techniques, observing the expected progressive downgrade of the crystalline quality, along with the increase of oxygenated functionality concentration. In addition, in contrast with common expectations, the results obtained demonstrate that the concentration of carboxylic groups (acids and anhydrides) never exceeds that of all other functionalities (lactones, phenols, quinones/carbonyls and sulphonic groups) introduced by chemical oxidation. Only by using equal volumes of sulphuric and nitric acids the concentrations of carboxylic and non-carboxylic groups become comparable. Raman analysis reveals that a change in the sample homogeneity accompanies the variations of the relative proportions of the various oxygenated groups, by the typology of which the vibration modes of carbon pairs and carbon rings appear to be affected to different extents.

Effect of sulphuric-nitric acid mixture composition on surface chemistry and structural evolution of liquid-phase oxidised carbon nanotubes

Santangelo S
;
G. Messina;G. Faggio;
2012

Abstract

Liquid phase functionalisation of carbon nanotubes is carried out via a H2SO4 +HNO3 mixture, and the effect of the sulphuric to nitric acid volume ratio (1:3–3:1) is systematically investigated by means of complementary techniques, observing the expected progressive downgrade of the crystalline quality, along with the increase of oxygenated functionality concentration. In addition, in contrast with common expectations, the results obtained demonstrate that the concentration of carboxylic groups (acids and anhydrides) never exceeds that of all other functionalities (lactones, phenols, quinones/carbonyls and sulphonic groups) introduced by chemical oxidation. Only by using equal volumes of sulphuric and nitric acids the concentrations of carboxylic and non-carboxylic groups become comparable. Raman analysis reveals that a change in the sample homogeneity accompanies the variations of the relative proportions of the various oxygenated groups, by the typology of which the vibration modes of carbon pairs and carbon rings appear to be affected to different extents.
CARBON NANOTUBES, RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, LIQUID PHASE FUNCTIONALISATION
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12318/1750
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