The efficacy of natural enemies in controlling pests under field conditions is largely correlated with their capacity to spread within infested crops. In this study the spatial dispersal of the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was evaluated in the field. The experiment was conducted in 2007 in six 1-ha plots in a Sicilian citrus orchard under integrated pest management. A total of 180,000 adults of A. melinus was released in each of three plots and the other plots were left as untreated controls. The flight range of the parasitoid was evaluated, for 35 days after the release, on 16 trees per each plot, located at 20 and 40 m from the central release point using yellow sticky traps activated with Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) sexual pheromone and by monitoring the percentage parasitism of the scale on fruits and twigs. The effects of the distance from the release point and density of susceptible stages of host on parasitoid dispersal were evaluated. The number of wasps captured during the whole trial was greater in the traps located 20 m from the release point than in those at 40 m and in the control plots. Aphytis melinus dispersed over distances less than 40 m based on both the lower percentage parasitism and numbers captured recorded at distances of 40 m. The results are discussed in the context of the biological control of California red scale in citrus orchards by means of releasing wasps; in particular, the release points should be no more than 40 m apart for a quick and homogeneous colonization of the whole of the area treated.
|Titolo:||Dispersal of Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) after augmentative releases in citrus orchards|
CAMPOLO, ORLANDO (Corresponding)
PALMERI, Vincenzo (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|