The contamination of honey with hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) is an actual concern for food safety. This study reports the first application of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) in the determination of five relevant PAs, and the relative N-oxide derivatives (PANOs), in honey. The effects of different experimental parameters (pH, ionic strength, type and volume of DLLME solvents) affecting the extraction efficiency were carefully investigated and optimized. PAs were extracted from honey (diluted solution 10% w/v at pH 9.5) by injecting a mixture of chloroform and isopropyl alcohol. A reduction step (zinc powder in acidic aqueous solution) before DLLME was performed to convert PANOs in PAs and to obtain the total PA levels. Both sample preparation protocols (DLLME and Zn-DLLME) showed negligible matrix effects on PA signal intensity in honeys of different botanical origins. The overall recoveries of DLLME and Zn-DLLME ranged from 71 to 102% and from 63 to 103%, respectively, with a good precision (standard deviations in the range from 1 to 12%). The attained method quantification limits stayed between 0.03 and 0.06 μg kg–1, and the linear response range extended to 25 μg kg–1. Additionally, the proposed method provides results comparable to those of the SPE protocol in the analysis of real samples. An analysis of retail honeys revealed PA residues in all analyzed samples, with a maximum level of 17.5 μg kg–1 (total PAs). Globally, the proposed method provides a sensitive and accurate determination of analytes and offers numerous advantages, such as simplicity, low cost, and a high sample throughput, which make it suitable for screening and quality control programs in food chain and occurrence studies.
|Titolo:||Determination of Selected Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Honey by Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction and Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
File in questo prodotto:
|Celano_2019_jafc_Determination_post print.pdf||Post print autore||Documento in Post-print||Tutti i diritti riservati (All rights reserved)||Open Access Visualizza/Apri|
|Celano_2019_jafc_Determination_editorial.pdf||Versione Editoriale (PDF)||Tutti i diritti riservati (All rights reserved)||Administrator Richiedi una copia|