Phenolic compounds, hydroquinone and cinnamic acid derivatives have been identified as major allelochemicals with known phytotoxicity from allelopathic plant Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. Several phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid (FA), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) and flavonoid (rutin, quercetin) constituents occur in the phyllodes and flowers of A. melanoxylon and have demonstrated inhibitory effects on germination and physiological characteristics of lettuce and perennial grasses. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms of action of these secondary metabolites in broad-leaved weeds at ecophysiological level. The objective of this study was to determine the response of Rumex acetosa carbon isotope composition and other physiological parameters to the interaction of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) (FA and pHBA) stress and the usefulness of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta C-13) as indicative of the functional performance of intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) at level of plant leaf. R. acetosa plant were grown under greenhouse condition and subjected to PSM stress (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM) for six days. Here, we show that FA and pHBA are potent inhibitors of Delta C-13 that varied from 21.0 h to 22.9 h. Higher pHBA and FA supply enhanced/retard the N-leaf and increased the C-leaf while ratio of intercellular CO2 concentration from leaf to air (Ci/Ca) was significantly decreased as compared to control. Leaf water content and leaf osmotic potential were decreased following treatment with both PSM. The Ci/Ca decreased rapidly with higher concentration of FA and pHBA. However, iWUE increased at all allelochemical concentrations. At the whole plant level, both PSM showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on PBM and C and N concentration, root fresh/dry weight, leaf fresh/dry weight, and root, shoot length of C-3 broad leaf weed R. acetosa. Carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) was correlated with the dry matter to transpiration ratio (transpiration efficiency) in this C-3 species, but its heritability and relationship to R. acetosa growth are less clear. Our FA and pHBA compounds are the potent and selective carbon isotope composition (Delta C-13) inhibitors known to date. These results confirm the phytotoxicity of FA and pHBA on R. acetosa seedlings, the reduction of relative water content and the induction of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) with lower plant biomass.

Carbon (13C) and nitrogen (N) Stable Isotope Composition Provide New Insights into Phenotypic Plasticity in Broad leaf Weed Rumex acetosa under Allelochemical Stress

MUSCOLO, Adele Maria
2018

Abstract

Phenolic compounds, hydroquinone and cinnamic acid derivatives have been identified as major allelochemicals with known phytotoxicity from allelopathic plant Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. Several phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid (FA), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) and flavonoid (rutin, quercetin) constituents occur in the phyllodes and flowers of A. melanoxylon and have demonstrated inhibitory effects on germination and physiological characteristics of lettuce and perennial grasses. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms of action of these secondary metabolites in broad-leaved weeds at ecophysiological level. The objective of this study was to determine the response of Rumex acetosa carbon isotope composition and other physiological parameters to the interaction of plant secondary metabolites (PSM) (FA and pHBA) stress and the usefulness of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta C-13) as indicative of the functional performance of intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) at level of plant leaf. R. acetosa plant were grown under greenhouse condition and subjected to PSM stress (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM) for six days. Here, we show that FA and pHBA are potent inhibitors of Delta C-13 that varied from 21.0 h to 22.9 h. Higher pHBA and FA supply enhanced/retard the N-leaf and increased the C-leaf while ratio of intercellular CO2 concentration from leaf to air (Ci/Ca) was significantly decreased as compared to control. Leaf water content and leaf osmotic potential were decreased following treatment with both PSM. The Ci/Ca decreased rapidly with higher concentration of FA and pHBA. However, iWUE increased at all allelochemical concentrations. At the whole plant level, both PSM showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on PBM and C and N concentration, root fresh/dry weight, leaf fresh/dry weight, and root, shoot length of C-3 broad leaf weed R. acetosa. Carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) was correlated with the dry matter to transpiration ratio (transpiration efficiency) in this C-3 species, but its heritability and relationship to R. acetosa growth are less clear. Our FA and pHBA compounds are the potent and selective carbon isotope composition (Delta C-13) inhibitors known to date. These results confirm the phytotoxicity of FA and pHBA on R. acetosa seedlings, the reduction of relative water content and the induction of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) with lower plant biomass.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12318/3309
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