Steam disinfestation represents an increasingly attractive strategy to control soil-borne pathogens and weeds both in greenhouses and field crops. Beyond pest control, steam injection has the potential to alter soil nutrient dynamics and composition of bacterial communities. This study investigated the impact of a soil-steaming method (the Bioflash system) on main chemical (total organic C, TOC; total N, TN; cation exchange capacity, CEC; exchangeable Na, K, Mg and Ca; KCl-extractable ammonium and nitrate,DTPA-exchangeable Mn) and microbial (microbial biomass C, MBC; genetic structure of bacterial communities) properties in a greenhouse loamy soil. Treatments were carried out by using a self propelled soil-steaming machine operating at two steaming modes (deep or shallow) in combination or not with addition of an exothermically reacting compound (CaO at a 1000 kg ha-1 rate). Soils from a five treatment (NS, non-steamed soil, DS, deep steam injection; DS-E, deep steam injection plus CaO; SS,shallow steam injection; SS-E, shallow steam injection plus CaO) plot block were sampled before steaming and after 8, 19, 54 and 91 days. Compositional shifts in the structure of soil bacterial communities were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of soil extracted 16S rRNA gene fragments, using primers specific for Bacteria and Actinobacteria. Maximum soil temperature reached 70 C (DS) and 82 C (DS þ E) in the 10-20 cm layer; and 50 C (SS) and 53 C(SS-E) in the 0-10 cm layer. TOC, TN, CEC, exchangeable Na, Mg and Ca were not statistically affected by soil steaming, CaO addition, depth of injection or their interactions. Conversely, SS promoted a large release of exchangeable K, notwithstanding CaO addition. Steam disinfestation significantly stimulated ammonium release, which further increased in CaO-treated steamed soils. Generally ammonium and nitrate pools varied oppositely, being the latter markedly reduced at the end of the observation period.Available Mn was significantly increased by soil steaming, but it was depressed when steaming was combined with CaO addition. Soil steaming markedly reduced the MBC, especially in DS-treated and SS-treated plots. The genetic structure of soil bacterial and actinobacterial communities was largely unresponsive to the steaming treatments. Even though the Bioflash system did not cause bacterial eradication or compositional shifts in bacterial community structure, soil steaming stimulated an increased release of soluble nutrients (K+, Mn2+, NH4+-N). Over a longer perspective, excessive soil resources exploitation and potential risks of Mn toxicity should be cautiously considered especially in repeatedly (and eventually acid) steamed soils.
|Titolo:||Chemical and microbial properties in a greenhouse loamy soil after steam disinfestation alone or combined with CaO addition|
GELSOMINO, Antonio (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|