Studies of thermal level-related asynchrony in a host–parasitoid relationship are necessary to understand the effects of climate change on new host–parasitoid interactions. In the Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) and its Chalcidoidea parasitoids, phenological synchrony is assumed to be weather-dependent in a new area of expansion. To evaluate the effects of environmental thermal regimes on the host, a phenology model for different cynipid stages (larvae, pupae, adults, and adult emergence) and a host–parasitoid phenological estimator are developed in three chestnut fields during two successive growth seasons and subsequently validated in areas with chestnut fields at two different altitudes. Comparisons of the timings of the juvenile and adult stages with those of the parasitoid complex demonstrate that the shortest period of occurrence for cynipids within galls has negative effects on the host–parasitoid relationships at higher temperature levels, thereby increasing phenological asynchrony for some parasitoids species. Reducing the development time of pupae and adults decreases the likelihood of success for some parasitoid species at higher temperature levels.We also record the extension of the gall wasp development time (approximately 15 days) at higher altitudes (linked to a lower mean temperature of approximately 1.5 ∘C). These results highlight how parasitization on the new hosts is dependent on the host phenology and, in the present study, is limited by the short duration of the presence of the host in galls, which could explain the considerable differences in cynipid gall wasp parasitization recorded at different altimeters.
|Titolo:||Environmental thermal levels affect the phenological relationships between the chestnut gall wasp and its parasitoids|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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