Several non-parasitic diseases are of primary significancefor olive trees growing in the Mediterranean areaand other warm-temperate regions of the world. As forother crops, they are generally poorly understood andoften completely unrecognized, especially in olive whichis considered a crop of marginal lands. The origin mayrest with a lack/excess of essential nutrients or an excessof non-essential elements; it may be an unsatisfactory environment:too cold or hot, too wet or dry, or too windy;there may be unsuitable soil characteristics such as poorphysical condition, water-logging, salinity, improper pH,and so on. Also pollution in the environment, spray andfire damage, and climatic extremes like lightning, hail,and snow can cause heavy losses to olive. This review focuseson the most important disorders of olive caused byenvironmental, physical, and chemical stresses that canaffect the normal physiological processes in trees. An integratedview is utilized to highlight interactions withplant healthiness, production, and quality.
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