The dune systems are very important from an environmental, landscape, and coastal defense point of view within coastal areas. Currently, dune systems are significantly reduced compared to a few decades ago and, in Europe alone, dune systems have decreased by 70%. During the same period, intense beach erosion processes have often been observed, and, currently, 30% of the world’s coasts are eroding. These processes have various causes, both natural and anthropogenic, and the knowledge of the causes of the erosive processes are very important for an effective planning and management of coastal areas and to correctly plan any interventions on dunes and beaches. The paper, through a case study, analyzes the beach and dune erosive processes, their causes, and the possible interventions. The case study concerns the archaeological site of Kaulon, located on a dune in the Ionian coast of Calabria (Italy). The beach near the site was affected by erosive processes and during the winter of 2013–2014, the site was damaged by two sea storms. To identify the causes of these processes, three erosive factors were analyzed. These factors are anthropogenic pressure, wave climate and sea storms, and river transport. The effects produced by these factors were assessed in terms of shoreline changes and of damage to the beach–dune system, also evaluating the effectiveness of the defense interventions. The main causes of the erosive processes were identified through the cross analysis of erosive factors and their effects. This analysis highlighted that in the second half of the last century the erosive processes are mainly correlated to anthropogenic pressure while, recently, natural factors prevail, especially sea storms. Regarding the interventions, the effects produced by two interventions carried out during the winter of 2013–2014, one built in urgency between the first and second sea storm and the other built a few years after the second sea storm were analyzed. This analysis highlighted that the latter intervention was more effective in defending the site.

Beach and dune erosion: Causes and interventions, case study: Kaulon archaeological site

Barbaro G.;Foti G.
;
2022

Abstract

The dune systems are very important from an environmental, landscape, and coastal defense point of view within coastal areas. Currently, dune systems are significantly reduced compared to a few decades ago and, in Europe alone, dune systems have decreased by 70%. During the same period, intense beach erosion processes have often been observed, and, currently, 30% of the world’s coasts are eroding. These processes have various causes, both natural and anthropogenic, and the knowledge of the causes of the erosive processes are very important for an effective planning and management of coastal areas and to correctly plan any interventions on dunes and beaches. The paper, through a case study, analyzes the beach and dune erosive processes, their causes, and the possible interventions. The case study concerns the archaeological site of Kaulon, located on a dune in the Ionian coast of Calabria (Italy). The beach near the site was affected by erosive processes and during the winter of 2013–2014, the site was damaged by two sea storms. To identify the causes of these processes, three erosive factors were analyzed. These factors are anthropogenic pressure, wave climate and sea storms, and river transport. The effects produced by these factors were assessed in terms of shoreline changes and of damage to the beach–dune system, also evaluating the effectiveness of the defense interventions. The main causes of the erosive processes were identified through the cross analysis of erosive factors and their effects. This analysis highlighted that in the second half of the last century the erosive processes are mainly correlated to anthropogenic pressure while, recently, natural factors prevail, especially sea storms. Regarding the interventions, the effects produced by two interventions carried out during the winter of 2013–2014, one built in urgency between the first and second sea storm and the other built a few years after the second sea storm were analyzed. This analysis highlighted that the latter intervention was more effective in defending the site.
Dune
Erosion
Longshore transport
River transport
Sea storms
Wave climate
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12318/112752
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