Grapefruit ¯avedo (Citrus paradisi Macf.) was extracted by di€erent methods: hydrodistillation; and solvent extraction using pentane, ethanol and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at two ¯uid densities. The composition of the distillates and oleoresins were compared. Monoterpene hydrocarbons decrease in SC-CO2 extracts at 87±90% with respect to their quantity in pentane extracts (95%) and in hydrodistillates (97%); these levels in monoterpene hydrocarbons were related to the limonene content, the most representative compound in grapefruit essence. Sesquiterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and esters increased their GC area percentage in SC-CO2 extract at a high density of the solvent, with respect to the hydrodistillate and the pentane extract. Very interesting was the high increase in nootkatone concentration in the SC-CO2 extracts; this grapefruit essence component was 4.72% in the extract at 8 MPa, and it was 5.19% in that at 25 MPa; the ketone was very low in the hydrodistillates (0.22±0.26%). The monoterpene hydrocarbon concentrations, expressed as g of component in 100 g of extract, showed a decrease in SC-CO2 oleoresins. Oxygenated, sesquiterpenes and particularly nootkatone increase their amount in SC-CO2 extracts

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction of Grapefruit Flavedo

POIANA, MARCO
;
SICARI V.;
1998

Abstract

Grapefruit ¯avedo (Citrus paradisi Macf.) was extracted by di€erent methods: hydrodistillation; and solvent extraction using pentane, ethanol and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at two ¯uid densities. The composition of the distillates and oleoresins were compared. Monoterpene hydrocarbons decrease in SC-CO2 extracts at 87±90% with respect to their quantity in pentane extracts (95%) and in hydrodistillates (97%); these levels in monoterpene hydrocarbons were related to the limonene content, the most representative compound in grapefruit essence. Sesquiterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols and esters increased their GC area percentage in SC-CO2 extract at a high density of the solvent, with respect to the hydrodistillate and the pentane extract. Very interesting was the high increase in nootkatone concentration in the SC-CO2 extracts; this grapefruit essence component was 4.72% in the extract at 8 MPa, and it was 5.19% in that at 25 MPa; the ketone was very low in the hydrodistillates (0.22±0.26%). The monoterpene hydrocarbon concentrations, expressed as g of component in 100 g of extract, showed a decrease in SC-CO2 oleoresins. Oxygenated, sesquiterpenes and particularly nootkatone increase their amount in SC-CO2 extracts
grapefruit; Citrus paradisi Macf; essences; aroma; volatiles; supercritical carbon dioxide extraction; analyses; GC; GC±MS; nootkatone
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12318/4120
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